When the first Celts arrived in America, they were as pagan as their brothers in Europe. Many of the earlier inscriptions in America depicted Baal worship and classical Phallic worship Then, all of sudden, there came the appearance of Christian inscriptions. In fact, whenever it was possible, the later Christian inscriptions were inscribed over the top of the earlier pagan writing. This was obvious to the Epigraphic scientists because the later inscriptions were cut deeper and partially obliterated the earlier work. In Cripple Creek, Colorado there is a memorial in Greek that states, "Herein is the last resting place of Palladis (a priest), the servant of God." At Oak Island, Nova Scotia is found an inscription in Libyan dialect of he North African Coptic Church, which states, "To escape contagion of plague and winter hardships, he is to pray for an end or mitigation, the arif: The people will perish in misery if they forget the Lord, alas.(The arif was a preceptor in charge of a small congregation lacking an ordained priest of the North African Coptic Church)" Wherever Christianity has gone, the Laws of God have been adapted into the legal system of the community. The Christian Celts of Iberia, Ireland, Scotland as well as the Christian Celts of America had a legal system that reflected the teachings of the Christian Bible. The system was called the Tanistry which means the administration of law by deputies of the king. The system as it is preserved from ancient times is rather lengthy so here are just a few examples to show the influence of the Christian Bible:
1). "In the obscurity of the mists of olden time a desire would arise
to replace armed combat by arbitration. (1 Kings 3:16-28; 1
2). And it would seem a desirable thing that land boundaries should be
fixed without recourse to moats. (Deuteronomy 19:14; 27:17; Job
24:2;Proverbs 22:28; 23:10; Joshua 5:10)
3). Henceforth cases involving wrongdoing are to be made over to the
wisest men. (Exodus 18:21-22; 22:9; Leviticus 19:15;
4). Any case is to be brought to judgment without delay.
5). Henceforth in any case involving false utterances let amends be
paid in compensation for the harm. (Deuteronomy 19:16-20; Proverbs
6:16-19;and Leviticus 19:16)
6). Henceforth if a complainant be merciful, let the judges also be
merciful. (2 Samuel 22:26; Psalm 18:25)
7). If a malicious man utter lying words that another declares to be
slanderous, to the measure of his tongue-loose recklessness shall he
transport heavy burdens for the other man. (Leviticus 6:2-6) 8). The
common people may eat corn, together with game bird but they may not
hunt bears. They may kill stags, goats and red deer."(Leviticus 1-30)
There is much more to the Tanistry but this gives you information that the early Celts became Christian and this was imparted to those Celts living in the United States long before Columbus "discovered" America. The Norsemen. The Columbus mystique has been so impressed on the American people that we are blinded to facts. Such again is the case of the colonists from Norway. When Thormod Torfason wrote his authenticated works titled Historia Vinlandae Antiquae in 1705, very few historians and other scholars knew anything of the many trips to America by the Norse mariners and colonists. For over two more centuries, nearly everyone continued to disbelieve Torfason's studies. The American's minds were made up, don't confuse us with facts! We will understand why we have been misled by the conclusion of the next lesson in history. On May 24, 1934, a mining prospector named James Edward Dodd was blasting in the Great Lakes region of Canada and his dynamite uncovered a sword and a shield. These artifacts were taken to the royal Ontario Museum and they were accurately dated to the first quarter of the eleventh century, about 1025 A.D. It was at this time that Leif Erickson began his first ventures to the land that he called Vinland. The name itself was given to the St. Lawrence River area because of the abundance of wild grapes that the Norsemen found to make a very good grade of wine. Because of the find of the sword and shield, along with much other evidence, we Americans began to believe that the Norsemen did, in deed, predate Columbus' discovery. In the 1930's, we began to learn about the tremendous amount of European travel and commerce predating Erickson by many centuries. Then in 1940, we were re-convinced that Erickson didn't exist and that there was absolutely nobody who proceeded Columbus. Admiral Samuel Eliot Morison was an author who appeared to be "puffed" by the establishment. His style of writing was light and airy and he was very capable of mixing legends in with archaeological and historical facts in such a way that it became easy to question the technical analysis. In 1940, from his Harvard position, he was adamant in his position that Columbus was the first and in 1942 he wrote Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus to prove his point. By 1961 the Royal Ontario Museum was obliged to re-evaluate their analysis of the sword and shield by stating that it "was not possible to authenticate the story of the alleged discovery." In Admiral Morison's book The European Discovery of America, he refutes the Vinland story by stating that nearly all of the seacoast towns from Newfoundland to the Virginia Capes boast in their histories that Lief Erickson was there. But he says that there have been no artifacts to prove his presence. He states that the Newport stone tower which is cherished as the first Christian Church in America is a fake and that it was built around 1675 by a colonial governor of Rhode Island. Yet, in 1946 an authenticated inscription was found on one of the rocks of the tower. The inscription is in Nordic Runes and simply declares the lower to be the "cathedral church" and the "Bishop's Seat." The Newport Tower is a part of the church that the Norsemen built in the early 1300's. To further authenticate this, the Italian explorer Giovanni de Verrazano in 1524 sailed up the East coast of the United States from Floridato Labrador. He rediscovered Long Island Sound and the Hudson River. He drew a map, which is officially shown in the Archives, of the Narragansett coast and in his writings he described the stone' built "Norman Villa." He went ashore and found friendly Indians who knew nothing of the building of the villa. Verrazano recognized it to be Norse because of the style of architecture and other evidence. An English document (of the period of the Pilgrims) proposed a settlement in Rhode Island. The document gave the location of the Norman Tower as the place where the settlement should be made. In Rhode Island today, the local name for the tower is often given as"Governor Arnold's Mill," because the first governor made use of the tower as a flour mill. Here is an example of how a historian can take partial facts, along with legend, and make it fit the "politically correct thing to say." There is evidence now being discovered that shows the Norsemen to have sailed South, along the Eastern seashore, into the Gulf of Mexico and then up the Mississippi River. Not only have Viking Battle Axes been found but more inscriptions to prove their presence. The Heavener runestone inscription in the Oklahoma State Park on Poteau Mountain has been definitely judged to be Nordic script of the Viking Age of not later than 1350 A.D. Viking inscriptions have alsobeen found in Colorado. No longer can we deny the presence of the Norsemen in America several hundred years before Columbus.
We have left for last what is perhaps the most striking evidence of pre-Columbus Europeans in America. In the Southwestern part of the United States the climate is generally arid or semi-arid and the soil is more alkaline. As a result of these conditions artifacts, including human remains, are left intact for a very long time. There is mounting evidence that Europeans, in significant numbers, colonized a portion of the Southwestern United States during the period from approximately 700 A.D. until about 1300 A.D. It is very significant that all of the colonies in North America, including this one under discussion, appeared to simply vanish within an approximate 100 year time frame.We may never know the exact reasons and there could have been several. We know that the Europeans transmitted diseases that were specific to Europe to the indigenous natives who were vulnerable to them. Conversely, the natives gave the Europeans specific diseases to which they were vulnerable, such as some of the social diseases. Or, there could have very easily been a universal uprising and this is even probable. Whatever the reasons were, we must believe that the ventures did not please God. There had to be things that were done that were seriously breaking some of His Laws. About 700 A.D. there appeared in the area of West Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Nevada, a literal empire apparently made up of a city-state system. The empire was Christian and they had succeeding kings. The people came from the British Isles, Gaul (France), Germany, Rome and apparently North Africa. Undoubtedly, the North Africans were the Berbers who had already arrived from Libya and had previously taught the natives to build the pueblo style structures and to irrigate for farming. Some of the ancient ruins that were very skillfully built of stone masonry that are dotted over the Southwest are probably associated with the empire. Some of these ancient ruins have been rebuilt with later construction over the top of the original. The modern Amerindian knows nothing about the builders of these ancient cities. However, they have given a name to these earlier inhabitants. They call them the Hohokam, which means "Those who have gone" or "The old ones."After the Spaniards occupied Mexico in the early 1500's, they headed north to investigate the persistent stories of the fabulously wealthy "Seven cities of Cibola."Of course they never found them because the empire had simply vanished a couple of hundred years earlier. Even in 1300 A.D. the empire had already waned in its importance as a kingdom so there wasn't much left.In New Mexico, south of Albuquerque and west of Los Lunas about 14miles, isa huge Basalt (volcanic) boulder. The rock is nestled in a small draw on the side of a group of hills which overlooks the stream called Rio Puerco. The front side, protruding from the soil, is very flat and provides a perfect place for an inscription. On this boulder, inscribed in old Hebrew with a Greek influence, is the decalogue or The Ten Commandments! As early as 1850, when New Mexico became a territory, people knew of the inscription but it was not until a century later when Professor Robert Pfeiffer of Harvard University, an authority on the Old Testament, determined it to be The Ten Commandments. The inscription was then re-authenticated as being The Ten Commandments by Dr. Barry Fell, the country's foremost Epigraphic scientist. The most revealing discoveries of this ancient kingdom came from the Tucson, Arizona area. Along the Santa Cruz River, in the vicinity of Tucson, beneath six or more feet of undisturbed cliché soil, were found many artifacts that unquestionably prove that European people lived in the area. Clichésoil is made up of crusted calcium carbonate mixed with ordinary dirt. Through many years, water mixes with the combination and turns it into A very hard, concrete like, soil. After it is once formed, if it is then removed, the soil never returns to the original configuration. Thus, when the he artifacts were found, it is certain that they are of ancient origin and not a recent fraud. The artifacts included lead swords, spears, a patriarchal monstrance orshrine used in the religious ceremonies, and eight heavy crosses. All of the artifacts were made of molded lead which was mined in the area. This is known because some of the molds were also found. Each of the crosses was actually two thin lead crosses which were riveted together with lead rivets. When the two halves were separated, it was found that the inner sides were protected with wax in order to preserve the inscriptions which were on the inside parts.It became obvious that the crosses were made for the purpose of a permanent recording of events that were taking place at the time. The swords were not to be used for combat. They were made of lead and also contained inscriptions. They were for ceremonies of some sort. The inscriptions contained words in Hebrew ,Latina and Greek. Following are some of the translations: On one of the crosses, at the top are the words "In Memoriam."On the cross arm at the left is a profile of a head with the words"Britain, Albion, Jacob." In the center is another head profile with the words"Romans, Actim, Theodore." On the right is another head profile with the words "Gaul, Seine, Israel."On the vertical beam of the lead cross is this inscription. "Counsels of great cities together with seven hundred soldiers A.D. 800, Jan. 1.""We are borne over the sea to Calalus, an unknown land where Toltezus Silvanusruledfar and wide over a people. Theodore transferred his troops to the foot of the city Rhoda and more than seven hundred were captured. No gold is taken away. Theodore, a man of great courage, rules for fourteen years. Jacob rules for six. With the help of God, nothing has to be feared. In the name of Israel, OL."The inscriptions on these artifacts is a sort of history of one of the city-states of the European migration to this country. The first inscription reveals that Theodore was the ruling king over the city-state of Rhoda.The Toltecs (which history shows existed in Mexico in this time frame)were under Chief Toltezus Silvanus who ruled over a very large area and people. Theodore was a Roman and he moved his troops to the foot or outskirts of the city Rhoda for defense against the Toltecs. Apparently the troops could not hold against the Toltecs and 700 troops were captured but the Toltecs did not take any gold. Theodore must have been killed in that battle. The second cross has the following inscription which, of course, has been translated from the Latin and Greek. "Jacob renews the city. With God's help Jacob rules with mighty hand in the manner of his ancestors. Sing to the lord. May his fame live forever. OL."Jacob, a native of Britain, and he succeeded Theodore for six years while counter attacking the enemy. He personally fought at the font lines and it appears that he died in battle. The third cross yielded this inscription. "From the egg (the beginning)A.D. 700 to A.D. 900. Nothing but the cross. While the war was raging, Israel died. Pray for the soul of Israel. May the earth lie light on thee. He adds glory to ancestral glory. Israel, defender of the faith. Israel reigns sixty-seven years."Israel I was born on the Seine River in France and must have been just a boy when he assumed the throne in 785. These dates are known because of other inscriptions but there are too many of them to include here. The year 790 under Israel I's reign was important because of his decisive victory over the Toltecs. He subjugated them to be under his rule. On January 1, 800 he presided over a council of allied city-states. Because of the present peace, he turned his attention to the priesthood.
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